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The effect is that of a structure composed of continuous semicircular or pointed sections. The earliest known examples of barrel vaults were built by the Sumerians , possibly under the ziggurat at Nippur in Babylonia ,  which was built of fired bricks cemented with clay mortar.
The earliest barrel vaults in ancient Egypt are thought to be those in the granaries built by the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II , the ruins of which are behind the Ramesseum , at Thebes.
Assyrian palaces used pitched-brick vaults, made with sun-dried mudbricks, for gates, subterranean graves and drains.
During the reign of king Sennacherib they were used to construct aqueducts, such as those at Jerwan. The tradition of their erection, however, would seem to have been handed down to their successors in Mesopotamia , viz.
The earliest example of regularly shaped voussoirs, and of about the same date, is found in the cloaca at Graviscae in Etruria , with a span of about 14 feet 4.
The enormous Eyvan-e Khosro at Ctesiphon near present-day Baghdad was built over 1, years ago during the Persian Sasanian period as a throne room.
So far, all the vaults mentioned have been barrel vaults, which, when not built underground, required continuous walls of great thickness to resist their thrust; the earliest example of the next variety, the intersecting barrel vault, is said to be over a small hall at Pergamum , in Asia Minor , but its first employment over halls of great dimensions is due to the Romans.
When two semicircular barrel vaults of the same diameter cross one another their intersection a true ellipse is known as a groin , down which the thrust of the vault is carried to the cross walls; if a series of two or more barrel vaults intersect one another, the weight is carried on to the piers at their intersection and the thrust is transmitted to the outer cross walls; thus in the Roman reservoir at Baiae , known as the Piscina Mirabilis , a series of five aisles with semicircular barrel vaults are intersected by twelve cross aisles, the vaults being carried on 48 piers and thick external walls.
The width of these aisles being only about 13 feet 4. The rings relieved the centering from the weight imposed, and the two layers of bricks carried the concrete till it had set.
As the walls carrying these vaults were also built in concrete with occasional bond courses of brick, the whole structure was homogeneous.
One of the important ingredients of the mortar was a volcanic deposit found near Rome, known as pozzolana , which, when the concrete had set, not only made the concrete as solid as the rock itself, but to a certain extent neutralized the thrust of the vaults, which formed shells equivalent to that of a metal lid; the Romans, however, do not seem to have recognized the value of this pozzolana mixture, for they otherwise provided amply for the counteracting of any thrust which might exist by the erection of cross walls and buttresses.
In the tepidaria of the Thermae and in the basilica of Constantine , in order to bring the thrust well within the walls, the main barrel vault of the hall was brought forward on each side and rested on detached columns, which constituted the principal architectural decoration.
In cases where the cross vaults intersecting were not of the same span as those of the main vault, the arches were either stilted so that their soffits might be of the same height, or they formed smaller intersections in the lower part of the vault; in both of these cases, however, the intersections or groins were twisted, for which it was very difficult to form a centering, and, moreover, they were of disagreeable effect: There still exist in Asia Minor and Syria some vaulted halls, generally attached to thermae, which are carried on walls of great thickness.
Another type of vault not yet referred to is that of the Tabularium arcade where the Cloister vault was employed. Reference has been made to the rib vault in Roman work, where the intersecting barrel vaults were not of the same diameter.
Their construction must at all times have been somewhat difficult, but where the barrel vaulting was carried round over the choir aisle and was intersected as in St Bartholomew-the-Great in Smithfield, London by semicones instead of cylinders, it became worse and the groins more complicated.
This would seem to have led to a change of system and to the introduction of a new feature, which completely revolutionized the construction of the vault.
Hitherto the intersecting features were geometrical surfaces, of which the diagonal groins were the intersections, elliptical in form, generally weak in construction and often twisting.
The medieval builder reversed the process, and set up the diagonal ribs first, which were utilized as permanent centres, and on these he carried his vault or web, which henceforward took its shape from the ribs.
Instead of the elliptical curve which was given by the intersection of two semicircular barrel vaults, or cylinders, he employed the semicircular arch for the diagonal ribs; this, however, raised the centre of the square bay vaulted above the level of the transverse arches and of the wall ribs, and thus gave the appearance of a dome to the vault, such as may be seen in the nave of Sant'Ambrogio, Florence.
To meet this, at first the transverse and wall ribs were stilted, or the upper part of their arches was raised, as in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen , and the Abbey of Lessay , in Normandy.
The problem was ultimately solved by the introduction of the pointed arch for the transverse and wall ribs - the pointed arch had long been known and employed, on account of its much greater strength and of the less thrust it exerted on the walls.
When employed for the ribs of a vault, however narrow the span might be, by adopting a pointed arch, its summit could be made to range in height with the diagonal rib; and, moreover, when utilized for the ribs of the annular vault , as in the aisle round the apsidal termination of the choir, it was not necessary that the half ribs on the outer side should be in the same plane as those of the inner side; for when the opposite ribs met in the centre of the annular vault, the thrust was equally transmitted from one to the other, and being already a broken arch the change of its direction was not noticeable.
Before entering into the question of the web or stone shell of the vault carried on the ribs, the earlier development of the great vaults which were thrown over the naves of a cathedral, or church, before the introduction of the pointed arch rib, shall here be noted.
As has been pointed out, the aisles had already in the early Christian churches been covered over with groined vaults, the only advance made in the later developments being the introduction of transverse ribs' dividing the bays into square compartments; but when in the 12th century  the first attempts were made to vault over the naves, another difficulty presented itself, because the latter were twice the width of the aisles, so that it became necessary to include two bays of the aisles to form one square bay in the nave.
This was an immense space to vault over, and moreover, it followed that every alternate pier served no purpose, so far as the support of the nave vault was concerned, and this would seem to have suggested an alternative, viz.
This resulted in what is known as a sexpartite, or six-celled vault, of which one of the earliest examples is found in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes S.
This church, built by William the Conqueror, was originally constructed to carry a timber roof only, but nearly a century later the upper part of the nave walls were partly rebuilt, in order that it might be covered with a vault.
The immense size, however, of the square vault over the nave necessitated some additional support, so that an intermediate rib was thrown across the church, dividing the square compartment into six cells, and called the sexpartite vault this was adopted in the cathedrals of Sens , Laon , Noyon , Paris —35 , and Bourges The intermediate rib, however, had the disadvantage of partially obscuring one side of the clerestory windows, and it threw unequal weights on the alternate piers, so that in the cathedral of Soissons a quadripartite or four-celled vault was introduced, the width of each bay being half the span of the nave, and corresponding therefore with the aisle piers.
To this there are some exceptions, in Sant' Ambrogio, Milan, and San Michele, Pavia the original vault , and in the cathedrals of Speyer , Mainz and Worms , where the quadripartite vaults are nearly square, the intermediate piers of the aisles being of much smaller dimensions.
Faith's chapel , Westminster Abbey. In the earlier stage of rib vaulting, the arched ribs consisted of independent or separate voussoirs down to the springing; the difficulty, however, of working the ribs separately led to two other important changes: The tas-de-charge, or solid springer, had two advantages: As soon as the ribs were completed, the web or stone shell of the vault was laid on them.
In some English work each course of stone was of uniform height from one side to the other; but, as the diagonal rib was longer than either the transverse or wall rib, the courses dipped towards the former, and at the apex of the vault were cut to fit one another.
In the early English Gothic period, in consequence of the great span of the vault and the very slight rise or curvature of the web, it was thought better to simplify the construction of the web by introducing intermediate ribs between the wall rib and the diagonal rib and between the diagonal and the transverse ribs; and in order to meet the thrust of these intermediate ribs a ridge rib was required, and the prolongation of this rib to the wall rib hid the junction of the web at the summit, which was not always very sightly, and constituted the ridge rib.
In France, on the other hand, the web courses were always laid horizontally, and they are therefore of unequal height, increasing towards the diagonal rib.
Each course also was given a slight rise in the centre, so as to increase its strength; this enabled the French masons to dispense with the intermediate rib, which was not introduced by them till the 15th century, and then more as a decorative than a constructive feature, as the domical form given to the French web rendered unnecessary the ridge rib, which, with some few exceptions, exists only in England.
In both English and French vaulting centering was rarely required for the building of the web, a template Fr. In Italy, Germany and Spain the French method of building the web was adopted, with horizontal courses and a domical form.
Sometimes, in the case of comparatively narrow compartments, and more especially in clerestories , the wall rib was stilted, and this caused a peculiar twisting of the web, where the springing of the wall rib is at K: One of the earliest examples of the introduction of the intermediate rib is found in the nave of Lincoln Cathedral , and there the ridge rib is not carried to the wall rib.
It was soon found, however, that the construction of the web was much facilitated by additional ribs, and consequently there was a tendency to increase their number, so that in the nave of Exeter Cathedral three intermediate ribs were provided between the wall rib and the diagonal rib.
In order to mask the junction of the various ribs, their intersections were ornamented with richly carved bosses, and this practice increased on the introduction of another short rib, known as the lierne, a term in France given to the ridge rib.
Lierne ribs are short ribs crossing between the main ribs, and were employed chiefly as decorative features, as, for instance, in the Liebfrauenkirche of Mühlacker , Germany.
One of the best examples of Lierne ribs exists in the vault of the oriel window of Crosby Hall, London. The tendency to increase the number of ribs led to singular results in some cases, as in the choir of Gloucester Cathedral , where the ordinary diagonal ribs become mere ornamental mouldings on the surface of an intersected pointed barrel vault, and again in the cloisters, where the introduction of the fan vault , forming a concave-sided conoid , returned to the principles of the Roman geometrical vault.
This is further shown in the construction of these fan vaults, for although in the earliest examples each of the ribs above the tas-de-charge was an independent feature, eventually it was found easier to carve them and the web out of the solid stone, so that the rib and web were purely decorative and had no constructional or independent functions.
The fan vault would seem to have owed its origin to the employment of centerings of one curve for all the ribs, instead of having separate centerings for the transverse, diagonal wall and intermediate ribs; it was facilitated also by the introduction of the four-centred arch, because the lower portion of the arch formed part of the fan, or conoid, and the upper part could be extended at pleasure with a greater radius across the vault.
The simplest version is that found in the cloisters of Gloucester Cathedral, where the fans meet one another at the summit, so that there are only small compartments between the fans to be filled up.
In later examples, as in King's College Chapel , Cambridge, on account of the great dimensions of the vault, it was found necessary to introduce transverse ribs, which were required to give greater strength.
Similar transverse ribs are found in Henry VII 's chapel and in the Divinity School at Oxford , where a new development presented itself. One of the defects of the fan vault at Gloucester is the appearance it gives of being half sunk in the wall; to remedy this, in the two buildings just quoted, the complete conoid is detached and treated as a pendant.
The vault of the Basilica of Maxentius , completed by Constantine, was the last great work carried out in Rome before its fall, and two centuries pass before the next important development is found in the Church of the Holy Wisdom Hagia Sophia at Constantinople.
It is probable that the realization of the great advance in the science of vaulting shown in this church owed something to the eastern tradition of dome vaulting seen in the Assyrian domes, which are known to us only by the representations in the bas-relief from Nimrud, because in the great water cisterns in Istanbul, known as the Basilica Cistern and Bin bir direk cistern with a thousand and one columns , we find the intersecting groin vaults of the Romans already replaced by small cupolas or domes.
These domes, however, are of small dimensions when compared with that projected and carried out by Justinian in the Hagia Sophia.
Previous to this the greatest dome was that of the Pantheon at Rome, but this was carried on an immense wall 20 feet 6.
The diagram shows the outlines of the solution of the problem. If a hemispherical dome is cut by four vertical planes, the intersection gives four semicircular arches; if cut in addition by a horizontal plane tangent to the top of these arches, it describes a circle; that portion of the sphere which is below this circle and between the arches, forming a spherical spandril , is the pendentive , and its radius is equal to the diagonal of the square on which the four arches rest.
Having obtained a circle for the base of the dome, it is not necessary that the upper portion of the dome should spring from the same level as the arches, or that its domical surface should be a continuation of that of the pendentive.
The first and second dome of the Hagia Sophia apparently fell down, so that Justinian determined to raise it, possibly to give greater lightness to the structure, but mainly in order to obtain increased light for the interior of the church.
According to Leedy , the fan vault was developed in England as opposed to France and other centres of gothic architecture due to the manner in which English rib vaults were normally constructed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A Study of Form, Technology and Meaning. The Rough Guide to Britain. Retrieved 7 August Retrieved from " https: Arches and vaults English architecture Medieval architecture.